Hands down the parka is the most versatile and comfortable clothing item to wear in late fall and winter. Parkas are lined coats made from waterproof synthetic fibres, they usually come with drawstrings and hooded. They are wearable and lightweight, protect from the wind, combat moisture and dirt, almost don't lose shape and, all in all, are a high performance low maintenance items unlike coats proper or sheepskin jackets. When choosing a parka opt for generously sized but not too bulky styles. Keep also in mind that the sweaters you layer underneath outerwear in winter days are more voluminous than T-shirts and shirts. Detailing plays a decisive role in the parka's design.
Whether your parka will beat the cold depends on the quality of materials sourced, fill power, and lining: down feather, wool, and high-tech synthetic insulation all accomplish this task each in its own way. You are well advised to study the information provided on the composition label: it is preferable for the insulation type and brand to be indicated on the label and the manufacturer's website, with the label set including a sample of it as well. Manufacturers test their products: test results and data sheets for a given insulation solution can be easily retrieved from the net. Placeholder phrases like "a lined jacket" or "quality Inuit insulation" tell nothing about actual product specifications.
During the cold season, lined parkas are readily available from mass market powerhouses (H&M, Pull&Bear, Asos), but bear in mind that polyester batting (even if double-layered) is anything but the perfect winter choice. Sportswear brands also offer lined parkas: adidas Originals, Quiksilver, and Nike always have them in stock.
In the above $300 category opt for parkas by high-tech extreme cold weather specialist brands like The North Face, Canada Goose, Alpha Industries, Stone Island, C.P.Company, etc. Expensive but 100% weatherproof. If you're looking for the parka par excellence ready to serve you till the end of time choose between conservative Woolrich of the USA and Switzerland's Strellson. More conceptually-minded styles are available from Opening Ceremony.
We've brought together a hundred parkas by all of the above mentioned brands in our edit - choose the ones to your liking.